عنوان مقاله [English]
The doctrine of Badāʼ (alteration in the divine will) is one of the theological characteristics and distinguishing features of Imami Shiites. The Qurānic origin of believing in this doctrine is the ideological and practical confrontation of the Holy Prophet (Ṣ) with the Jews. The Jews believed in the closure of God's hand in the planning of the universe after creation, but the Prophet (Ṣ), according to the verses of the Qur'an, believed in God's free hand in running the affairs of the universe. The Imams (AS) also prevented the Shias from falling into the abyss of denying the role of God in the world by introducing monotheistic teachings and emphasizing "the departure from the two limits" (the limit of denial and similitude) and suggesting the doctrine of Badāʼ. This belief, which is similar to the abrogation in pre-Islamic religions, was introduced and spread among the Shias by quoting verses from the Qur'an. The belief has two practical-ideological and behavioral roles for believers. The practical role is noteworthy in terms of emphasizing that God is absolutely and always free hand in running the universe, understanding that there is no way to change the divine knowledge, and recognizing the diversity of Qaḍā (divine decree) and Qadar (predestination). The practical role of believing in this doctrine in human performance is also rooted in the belief in non-rule of determinism in the universe and the significant role of human beliefs and behavior in changing divine destiny, so that man considers correcting beliefs, following the path of guidance and performing righteous deeds to be influential in changing divine destinies. Furthermore, the practical role creates the greatest motivation in humans for self-purification in order to abandon false beliefs and bad deeds and causes them to play a role in worldly and otherworldly affairs.